The following article is from the Elite Fitness mailing list and contains controversial information.Elite Fitness: Online Bodybuilding Magazine:
The Phenyltropic PPA/Humulin R Cutting Stack is the ultimate HARDCORE diet and contest prep stack designed specifically to give you supreme definition, razor sharp cuts, and extraordinary vascularity in the shortest period of time. In this issue of Elite Fitness News you will find EXCLUSIVE INSIDER TIPS on maximizing your definition and cuts with the use of insulin and other radical diet drugs like clenbuterol, cytomel, tiratricol, Synthroid, and Phenyltropic PPA. You will also find militant diet information for transforming your physique.
My name is George Spellwin. I am the research director of Elite Fitness. This issue of Elite Fitness News is all about radical cutting. Summer is here and many of you are making sure that you stay ripped for the season. If you are not as cut as you like, and who ever is, you are in luck. In this issue, I'll show you how to get a perfectly ripped physique with a new stack that I call the Phenyltropic PPA/Humulin R Cutting Stack. The potent stack combines four drugs for maximum results: Humulin R (insulin), DL Norephedrine HCl, Caffeine, and Yohimbine HCl. The good news is that you can get them without a prescription.
In the pages that follow, you'll learn about a radical diet and a truly aggressive hardcore drug combination that is frequently used by the pros for contest preparation. We also profile six other not-so-legal diet drugs. Forget those herbal, non-drug based diet products. This is where the real action is.
Yours in sport,
In recent consultations with my personal clients I have seen an increase in questions and studies on the topic of dieting. In response I would now like to share with you what I have found to be the ultimate in hardcore dieting-THE KETOGENIC DIET. I will also tell to you about a controversial method for entering ketosis using injectable insulin, and why you might want to consider this secret weapon.
Working with my personal consultation clients, I have found that there is no better way to get them ripped and into contest ready shape than the use of a modified ketogenic diet. In fact, when helping a bodybuilder get ready for a contest, I will not work with him until he is in the metabolic state called ketosis. This state is the point at which the body burns fats for fuel in the absence of carbohydrates. A high fat diet you ask-won't that make me fat? The answer is YES. If you do not restrict carbohydrates, perhaps there is no better way of getting fat. The answer is NO if you restrict your carbohydrates to the point that your body makes the metabolic shift from burning carbohydrates for its daily energy needs to burning fat. This metabolic shift occurs when your blood sugar levels drop below normal and your body starts converting fatty acids into what is called ketones or fractured fats. At this point your body will burn those ketones as its primary energy source. More on this in a moment, let's first take a look at the problems with traditional low-fat diets, especially when used by people who are not fat (i.e. athletes) in order to better understand the exclusive benefits to the high fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.
Traditional Low fat diets:
The high fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet:
Before explaining how a ketogenic diet works there are three things many dieters do to get ready.
First of all, before you start on this diet, many athletes get a physical including blood work. Among other things, this gives you a baseline cholesterol level. Knowing that your cholesterol levels are healthy at the start of a high fat diet is a good safety precaution. PLEASE NOTE: This diet is controversial and should not be used by pregnant women.
Second, to achieve goal results on a ketogenic diet, or any diet for that matter, it is important to determine how many calories you eat each day? To best answer this question you need to calculate your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and your Active Metabolic Rate (AMR.) Your BMR is the number of calories your body needs to sustain basic body functions while at rest. This means if you have a BMR of 2000 calories, you need to take in this many calories each day to simply maintain your body weight if you were to spend the whole day at rest. Your AMR is the amount of calories your body needs to sustain basic functions plus the calories needed to perform at your average daily activity level. If you eat more calories than your AMR then you will gain weight, if you eat less calories than your AMR then you will lose weight. It is that simple.2. Calculating caloric intake based on your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and your Active Metabolic Rate (AMR).
Here is the basic formula for calculating your BMR and AMR. (Do not worry
if this looks hard, an easy way follows.)
655 + [4.36 x Weight (lbs.)] + [4.32 x Height (inches)] - (4.7 x Age) = your BMR
66 + (6.22 x Weight (lbs.)] + [12.7 x Height (inches)] - (6.8 x Age) = your BMR
Next, to determine the amount of total calories your active body needs or
its AMR simply multiply your BMR by the appropriate activity factor listed
Lightly active (normal, everyday activities)...BMR x 1.3 = Maintenance Calorie Level
Moderately active (exercise 3 to 4 times a week)...BMR x 1.4 = Maintenance Calorie Level
Very active (exercise more than 4 times a week)...BMR x 1.6 = Maintenance Calorie Level
Extremely active (exercise 6 to 7 times a week for more than 1 hour duration)...BMR x 1.8 = Maintenance Calorie Level
Interestingly, simply by changing from a lightly active lifestyle to a very active lifestyle you can increase your caloric intake by 24% (about 500 calories).
Once you've completed the above calculations you should cut your AMR by 15% and consume this number of calories in total each day while on the ketogenic diet.
For a quick and easy way to calculate all that, here's a web site that will do the math for you: http://tqd.advanced.org/10991/german/bmr.html
The third thing to do before you begin is to purchase Ketostix from your local pharmacy. They are found behind the pharmacy counter, but you do not need a prescription to purchase them. These sticks are traditionally used by diabetics to measure the amount of ketones in their urine and are an intrigal part of a successful ketogenic diet, but more on this later.
How a ketogenic diet works:
This diet starts at around 6-8 p.m. on Sunday night with a meal of carbohydrates and lasts until the following weekend (approximately 5-7 days). This Sunday night meal should be made up of simple carbs like breakfast cereal or fruit and no fats. Complex carbs like pasta, bread, or rice should be avoided as they take a long time for your body to break down and use as fuel. We want carbs that are easily available to the body in order to create an insulin spike prior to the beginning of the diet. This insulin spike will allow the body to lower blood sugar levels and enter ketosis more efficiently once you begin the high fat, low carb portion of the diet.
Following this final high carb meal and lasting until you enter ketosis, you need to eat about 75 to 80% of your daily calories from fat and 20% to 25% daily calories from protein. This very high fat intake is necessary to enter ketosis as quickly as possible so that you can begin the fat burning process. If the protein amounts are too high, then the body might not be able to make the required metabolic shift to producing ketones. More importantly, you must not eat more than 15-20 grams of carbs during this period. This means that you can eat no more than 3-4 grams of carbs per meal spread out between 5-6 meals per day. Eating 20 grams of carbs per day is fine, but eating all 20 grams of carbs at once will definitely bring you out of ketosis.
You may be asking yourself what kinds of food can be eaten on this diet that are high in fat and also contain no carbs. Unfortunately, the menu on this diet is very limited. Few foods contain near zero carbs. Fortunately, you can eat any combination of ground beef, prime rib, and sirloin steaks, which all contain high amounts of fat with zero carbs as long as you eat hem without breading or sauces. Chicken with the skin on is also a good choice. This is also your chance to eat Buffalo Wings with blue cheese and even McDonald's beef patties without the bread or condiments. You will definitely have to be careful at restaurants because you never know exactly how the food is prepared. Eggs are good while on a ketogenic diet; they have less than 1 gram of carbs per egg, but be careful with any dairy products like processed cheeses, which often contain 2-3 grams of carbs per slice. Other foods like sausage, pork, flounder, cheddar cheese, tuna, and butter have near-zero carbs and are high in fat. Green vegetables like lettuce, broccoli, and celery are great as they are made up of mostly water and contain near-zero carbs. When it comes to food choices the bottom line is that you have to read nutrition labels. If you are not sure if the food contains carbs simply don't eat it.
Please find a comprehensive guide to high fat, low carb foods on Elite Fitness at: http://www.elitefitness.com/training/health/calorie.shtml
In terms of training it would be great if you could do aerobics and weight train with the same energy and intensity as you would with carbohydrates in your system. Unfortunately you cannot. When your body is in a state of ketosis, you will probably feel a little lethargic, especially the first week. This doesn't mean that you should stop aerobic activity or weight training-just lower the intensity. Limit aerobics to 2 days per week on an empty stomach first thing in the morning. Limit weight training to 2 or 3 days during the week on nonaerobic days. You should train big muscle groups like legs, back, and/or chest on Monday when you still might have stored glycogen in your muscles. Save the small muscle groups like arms, shoulders, and calves for Tuesday or Wednesday.
By about Wednesday your body should be in ketosis. This means that there will be detectable ketone bodies present in your urine, which you can measure with a Ketostix. Remember, the darker the shade of purple on the stick, the deeper you are in ketosis. Most people will reach only the moderate level (pink to light purple) while others will be able to get into deep ketosis more easily. Once you are in at least moderate ketosis it is o.k. to up your protein intake to 35-40% of your daily calories. Fat intake should be between 60-65% with less than 5% from carbs. For a person who is eating between 2400-2700 cal/day this would translate into no more than 30 grams of carbs per day. Again remember, it is important that the carbs be spread throughout the day to not bring you out of your ketogenic state. I also recommend that you check the Ketostixs at least twice a day once they show that you are in ketosis. This will allow you to do some damage control by eating almost all of your calories from fat if you've made a mistake and start to come out of ketosis.
On Saturday or Sunday, you will be ready to begin the fun part of the diet, the carb up! In order to achieve the best results, you need to deplete the muscles of glycogen with a full body circuit workout on Friday in order to prep them for maximum carb absorption on the weekend. This means that you have to do a few sets of exercises for all of your muscle groups in one exhaustive workout. Use lightweights and high repetitions on all exercises with as much intensity as you can muster. I recommend using compound exercise movements that involve the most muscle groups in an effort to fatigue all of your muscles in the shortest amount of time. Exercises such as squats, incline bench presses, front barbell shoulder presses, and front machine pulldowns will take care of all the big muscle groups while incorporating smaller muscle groups as well. Throw in 1-2 sets of bicep curls, tricep pushdowns, and calf raises and your total body workout is completed.
On Saturday and Sunday eat 10-15% above your (AMR) active maintenance number of calories broken down as follows: high carb (60%), low fat (15-20%), medium protein (20-25%). This will again cause an insulin spike as it did at the beginning of your diet week. The spike of insulin drives the carbohydrates into your depleted muscles, which has an anabolic effect. You will need to eat often, every 2-2 1/2 hours. Bodybuilding guru Dan Duchaine even recommends waking-up during the night to eat. Remember, that for these two days you will no longer be in the ketogenic state that uses fat as the body's primary fuel. Now is the time to cut back and eat no more than 20% of your calories from fat.
The first day of the weekend carb meals should contain foods with the highest glycemic index in order to cause the greatest possible insulin spike. The rate at which food raises blood glucose is called its glycemic index. Some foods with a high glycemic index are instant rice, baked potatoes, carrots, graham crackers, rice cakes, bagels, watermelon, and pineapple. You can eat high glycemic foods like bowls of sugary breakfast cereals with skim milk or waffles with maple syrup. Eating these foods will cause a rush of carbohydrates that will be forced directly into your muscle cells. Since added fat will slow down this insulin response and negatively effect the carb up, it would be wise to limit your intake of meats and cheeses during the first day. You can increase your protein intake by using a protein supplement like a soy or whey protein and eating foods like tuna or chicken breasts. A comprehensive glycemic index for various foods can be found on Elite Fitness at: http://www.elitefitness.com/training/health/glycemic.shtml
NOTE: On Sunday evening be sure to switch back to the high fat / low carb mode after your last high carb meal (from 6-8PM).
These are the basics of a ketogenic diet. The most important thing you should remember is that your body needs to make the metabolic shift necessary to convert fatty acids into ketones which it will then burn for energy-without the shift the diet will not work. As a dieter, you will be able to drive your body into ketosis by following the diet procedures outlined above. Though definitely effective the diet process outlined above takes you into ketosis in anywhere from 48 to 72 hours. That means your body is using stored fatty acids as fuel for only 48 to 72 hours before you begin the weekend carb-up stage of the diet.3. How to enhance fat metabolism with Phenyltropic PPA and how you can get it.
Phenyltropic PPA is a new and improved drug based diet product unsurpassed in its ability to help athletes burn body fat, and is currently legal for sale in the United States. In fact while working with my clients, I have found that the combination of a ketogenic diet and Phenyltropic PPA is the best way for you to lose body fat while protecting muscle mass. Phenyltropic PPA is the Mass Quantities version of the EAC stack-a combination of ephedrine, caffeine, and aspirin. Though chemically similar, Mass Quantities has replaced the ephedrine component of the stack with DL norephedrine HCl because of its greater potential to raise the body's metabolic rate-resulting in greater lypolysis or fat loss. Studies have in fact shown norephedrine to be the most potent and the most thermogenic of all the ephedrine alkaloids, making this switch a very beneficial one. Since norephedrine does not cross the blood-brain barrier to the same extent as ephedrine we do not see the same level of central nervous system stimulation or side effects as with ephedrine. No more jitters! It also does not (currently) carry the same FDA restrictions as ephedrine, and is therefore more readily available to the public.
The combination of norephedrine with caffeine works synergistically to drastically increase the body's production of adrenaline and noradrenaline-the primary adrenergic hormones. These hormones bind to the various adrenergic receptors, of which there are the beta sub 2, beta sub 3, and alpha sub 2 receptors, that together affect fat loss and fat dispersal. The stimulation of the beta sub 2 and the beta sub 3 receptors in particular is what's responsible for the mobilization and burning of adipose tissue (fat). These are the receptors that you want to stimulate to affect fat loss in a positive way and thankfully the caffeine/norephedrine combination is quite efficient at this.
The other receptor of great interest to the bodybuilder is the alpha sub 2. Studies have shown that this receptor blocks the mobilization of adipose tissue. In men these receptors are concentrated primarily in the lower abdomen and sides or love handles; in women, they are concentrated in the lower body. This explains why on many diets weight is lost, but the physique is not drastically improved because the lost fat is intermuscular, with the subcutaneous fat-the fat just under the skin-not being effected. Here is where the addition of Yohimbine proves useful. Yohimbine blocks the alpha sub 2 receptor, enabling a greater level of fat loss in the body's most resilient areas.
For more of the science behind this amazing new product please go to: http://www.massquantities.com/products/phenyltropic.html
4. A controversial secret for getting into fat burning ketosis faster with Humulin R-8 hours instead of 3 days-and how you can get it!
There is a hardcore trick the pro's use that forces your body into ketosis within only 8 to 12 hours allowing more time for the body to burn fatty acid stores before your carb-up stage. The trick, originally brought to my attention by Dan Duchaine, is the use of Humulin R injectible insulin. Humulin R insulin is important compared to other types of insulin because it reaches its peak effect in 2 hours, causing a quick metabolic shift into ketosis. Using small amounts of insulin will cause your blood glucose to drop, in a quick and controlled manner. Glucose levels hit about 50 mg/ml and force your body into ketosis at a much faster rate. Insulin is one of the most controversial drugs used in bodybuilding today. The reality is that if you slip up and use too much insulin, you could enter a hypoglycemic coma, which could cause irreversible damage to your body and in some cases prove fatal. Please note that that the following information is highly controversial and provided solely for informational purposes.
Despite the controversy surrounding its use insulin is one of the easiest substances in bodybuilding to obtain legally. It is available over the counter in most U.S. states and costs between $20-$30 in local pharmacies and is even cheaper through U.S. mail order pharmacies. In most U.S. states a prescription is required to purchase and possess the insulin syringes used to administer the drug. This problem can be avoided by ordering syringes from mail order sources. A person using insulin for bodybuilding purposes should face no real legal ramifications. The only problems that can arise is getting caught possessing syringes with out a script or actually selling insulin for any purpose other than the treatment of diabetes.
A glucometer, to display your blood glucose levels, is highly recommended while attempting to use insulin safely. A glucometer costs around $100. It is possible to use insulin without a glucometer if your are cautious but it is not recommended. You will also need to purchase insulin syringes that hold up to 100 units. Do not use regular syringes. You will need to measure out precise amounts of insulin, between 2-3 units, which cannot be measured accurately using a regular syringe.
Here's how it works:
After you eat your last carb meal on Sunday night, you will need to take a reading on the glucometer to check your blood glucose level. The body's normal blood glucose level is usually between 80mg/ml and 120 mg/ml. At this point, draw 2-3 units of insulin into a syringe and inject it subcutaneously into a fold of skin. After waiting between two or three hours, take another reading with the glucometer. You blood glucose level will have dropped since your last measurement. Again inject 2 units of insulin and measure your blood glucose level around 2 hours after your injection. Repeat this cycle until your blood glucose level is between 55 mg/ml and 65 mg/ml. When your blood glucose is at this level, you will descend into ketosis while you sleep. ALWAYS REMEMBER TO STAY AWAKE FOR AT LEAST 2 HOURS AFTER AN INSULIN INJECTION. The last thing you want is to fall asleep after an injection and have your blood glucose drop to a dangerously low level while you sleep. You could fall into a hypoglycemic coma and no one will recognize the symptoms until it is too late.
Upon waking in the morning, measure your urine with the Ketostix. Measuring ketones in the morning is necessary because the sticks show only the unused level of ketones in your body and should show trace to moderate ketone levels. If you measure them in the afternoon the numbers will not be as accurate, because most of the ketones that were produced will have been used by your body as fuel.
If you do not have access to a glucometer, you will need to be much more cautious when attempting to use insulin. Since you will not be able to accurately measure your blood glucose, only small amounts of insulin should be used. You can start out with 2 units of insulin after your carb meal on Sunday. After that you should not use anymore than 1-1 1/2 units of insulin every two hours. A total of two or three injections should be made and then you should measure with the ketostix upon waking in the morning. If you still have not entered ketosis, use insulin injections of 1-1 1/2 units every two hours until you enter ketosis. This way takes longer, but you should enter ketosis within 18-20 hours.
In the not too distant future, Insulin intake will become even easier. Thanks to a new insulin inhaler, by Generex, insulin injections may become relics of the past. The inhaler sprays insulin out into the mouth like a mist, which coats the membranes of the mouth, throat and tongue. The insulin then passes quickly through the membranes into the bloodstream. The new insulin inhaler is in phase two clinical trials. If all goes well, the Food and Drug Administration could put it on a fast track for approval, making it available on the market in less than two years.5. The Phenyltropic PPA/Humulin R Cutting Stack
Week One: Follow the ketogenic diet alone, or on Sunday night of the diet inject 1 to 2 Units Humulin R Insulin, until blood sugar levels have dropped. No more than 3-4 small injections (1-2 units) should be necessary to enter ketosis, as outlined above.
Week Two: Begin using Phenyltropic PPA on Monday at one tab/day and work up to three tabs/day.*
Week Three: Continue as outlined above making Sunday the Humulin R insulin day with no Phenyltropic PPA.
*NOTE: As with any other type of supplement containing caffeine and norephedrine, Phenyltropic PPA should be titrated onto slowly and titrated off the same way. As with all stimulants, one tends to become accustomed to them over time. Soon you need to take more to get the same effect. The individual taking Phenyltropic PPA is really the only one who can answer if the dose is too high. Most athletes work up to three tabs/day. You've also got to watch out for other sources of caffeine when using a product such as Phenyltropic PPA. Within three weeks after the full dosage has been reached, the body will adjust and the caffeine will lose its effect. However, if you add a baby aspirin with each dose, the potentiating effect of the aspirin will prolong the effectiveness of the "stack" for quite a while longer. Remember there is additional stress on the adrenal glands and at least one day per week the stack should be discontinued. A total break for at least two to three weeks after 4-6 weeks of usage is also a good idea.6. Here are the profiles of some diet drugs favorites: clenbuterol, Cytomel, Synthroid, and tiratricol. All will enhance the Phenyltropic PPA/Humulin R Cutting Stack.
You may be familiar with clenbuterol, as it is a very popular dieting drug among bodybuilders. Specifically this drug has an effect on the body similar to the endogenous hormone adrenaline (epinephrine). The properties of this drug are similar to ephedrine and norephedrine, which work mainly to stimulate certain adrenergic receptors. Clenbuterol most specifically binds to the beta-2 receptor, which is directly related to fat loss. When this receptor is activated, the body is prompted to release fatty acids into circulation (lowering fat stores). Clenbuterol also acts as a strong CNS stimulant, and users quite commonly report associated side effects like shaky hands, insomnia, sweating, increased blood pressure and nausea during treatment. Such side effects generally subside after a week or so once the user becomes accustomed to the drug. Only consider clenbuterol when the stimulating effects of Phenyltropic PPA have subsided.
Much more detailed information on clen can be found right on the Elite Fitness site in a free excerpt from the cutting and bulking guides. Check out: http://www.elitefitness.com/steroids/clenbuterol.html
Cytomel is a syntehtic form of the endogenous thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T-3). Thyroid hormones are the primary regulators of body metabolism, and effect virtually all organ systems. T-3 is the hormone that displays the most pronounced activity in the body, although there are a number of other hormones and precursors in this group. Thyroid drugs are advantageous to the athlete for their ability to markedly increase the metabolic rate (affecting the rate in which proteins, fats and carbohydrates are utilized by the body). In particular, the use of thyroid drugs can have a dramatic impact on an individuals body-fat stores. So much that many bodybuilders find it possible to shred off excess fat without the same level of caloric restrictions needed with "natural" diets. Dieting is in fact very difficult for most people, because the body will quickly notice a deficit in food intake, and will respond by reducing the level of thyroid hormones in the blood. This makes it increasingly more difficult for the average person to consistently lose weight during a diet, as the body is constantly striving to lower its daily need for calories. Thyroid use clearly circumvents this problem, making this type of drug use very popular among serious competitors. These drugs are not without side effects however, which include, but are not limited to, heart palpitations, agitation, shortness of breath, irregular heartbeat, sweating, nausea, headaches, and psychic/metabolic disorders. Cytomel is a powerful hormone, one that can permanently alter the functioning of the body if it is misused. When administering it, one must take caution to increase the dosage slowly. It is also a good recommendation to take no more than 100mcg daily.
Synthroid is a synthetic form of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T-4). Thyroxine was the first thyroid hormone isolated by scientists, who at first mistakenly thought it was the primary thyroid hormone. Later we have come to find however that T-3 is the hormone which displays the most activity. Thyroxine is actually looked at as a relatively inactive thyroid product in its initial state, and exerts most of its action by converting to T-3. 80% of blood T-3 actually comes from the conversion of T-4, so thyroxine can be thought of as a form of storage for active thyroid hormone in the body. Administration of a synthetic T-4 can markedly increase basal metabolism however, its effect is limited by the rate at which the body can convert it. It is therefore considered as a weaker thyroid option, although its effect is still quite substantial. As with Cytomel, side effects can be a major concern (see above). Synthroid is also believed to have the potential to permanently alter thyroid functioning if misused, so don't be tricked into thinking it is completely weak or benign. Similar dosing regimens to Cytomel apply, with the total daily amount not to exceed 300-400mcg.
Tiratricol is a synthetic thyroid hormone popular among bodybuilders in Europe. Similar to Synthroid, this compound is relatively inactive in its initial state. Its effect on the body stems from its ability to convert to T-3, the body's primary thyroid hormone. It is interesting to note that tiratricol is commonly used in Europe to treat cases of hyperthyroidism (overproduction of thyroid hormones). Apparently in such conditions the intake of tiratricol can cause the body to recognize a surplus of thyroid hormone levels (feedback mechanism), signaling for the reduced secretion of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). This will ultimately aid in the regulation of hormone production, as natural T-3 and T-4 output would be reduced. Healthy bodybuilders however do not feel the use of this item lowers thyroid levels, and instead find it to be a very effective drug for elevating T-3 and increasing the removal of excess body fat. Tiratricol is comparatively weaker than the previously mentioned thyroid products, although one should still take caution when administering it. The maximum dosage should not be taken from the onset; instead it is to be built up slowly. A typical daily dosage is somewhere in the range of ten to fourteen .35mg tablets, with two to four tablets being considered the customary starting point. This is usually increased by two tablets every subsequent day (or two). Likewise the dosage should be slowly reduced as the drug is discontinued. This drug is not without side effects, however; they are much less prevalent than with other thyroid medications.
For more information on these and other diet drugs, please check out the Elite fitness Cutting Guide found at: http://www.elitefitness.com/steroids/docoffer.html7. Profiles of the only two new diet drugs released in the last two years: Sibutramine and Orlistat
Sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate, brand name Meridia, is an FDA approved oral prescription medication used for the management of obesity and maintenance of weight loss and is known to work best when used in conjunction with a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity. Meridia works by affecting natural chemicals in the brain involved in regulating the appetite and allows them to act longer. The appetite control center in the brain is what is believed to regulate the amount of food eaten through feelings of hunger and fullness. Unlike many other appetite suppressant drugs, Meridia is not a releasing agent. It does not get inside the cells to boost the release of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin. Instead, as an uptake inhibitor, Meridia works outside the cells to stop these neurotransmitters from being reabsorbed and thereby allowing appetite control to last longer. In clinical trials of 6,000 individuals, Meridia produced clinically and statistically siginificant weight loss results. Meridia was studied among men and women, ages 18 to 65, and on average, patients achieved 5-10% reduction of baseline weight. If appetite control is necessary while on a ketogenic diet this drug might be a good addition. Most side effects associated with Meridia are mild and momentary in nature, including dry mouth, headache, constipation and insomnia. In some patients, Meridia substantially increases blood pressure. MERIDIA should be taken once a day without regard to meals. It will also be available in multiple doses (5, 10, and 15 mg), enabling physicians to individualize therapy for their patients. The recommended starting dose of MERIDIA is one 10 mg capsule per day. Patients with inadequate weight loss should be titrated to a 15 mg dose.
On May 24, 1999, a new diet drug that reduces fat absorption finally won approval from the Federal Drug Administration. It was only the second diet drug (after sibutramine) to receive FDA approval since 1997, when the administration banned the popular fen-phen combination after it was linked to several heart-related deaths. Orlistat, the first of a new class of drugs called lipase inhibitors, can decrease absorption of dietary fat in the gastrointestinal tract by about 30 percent, according to drug manufacturer Roche Laboratories. This would indicate it would not be an optimal choice for a ketogenic diet. The FDA approved it by prescription for the seriously obese only and not casual dieters who want to shed five or 10 pounds. The drug, trade-named Xenical, was tested over seven years on more than 4,000 patients and on average, 57 percent of patients treated with Xenical and 31 percent of placebo-treated patients lost at least 5 percent of their body weight. All patients in the studies received nutritional counseling as well. In January, the results of a two-year study on the effectiveness of Xenical were released in the Journal of the American Medical Association. The study, funded by the drug's manufacturer, found Xenical helped patients lose weight, but only about seven pounds more after two years than the patients who took a dummy pill. The JAMA study also showed Xenical was associated with a slight reduction in cholesterol, blood pressure and glucose. For those taking the drug, health authorities recommend a nutritionally balanced diet with no more than 30 percent of calories from fat. Xenical reduces absorption of some fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, K and beta carotene, so users of the drug are advised to take dietary supplements. Side effects of Xenical include gas, diarrhea and intestinal cramping. Typically the more fat patients eat, the more effects they experience.
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Yours in sport,
DISCLAIMER PLEASE READ:
The content of the Elite Fitness Newsletter is provided for informational purposes and is intended for your education only. Neither Elite Fitness nor its writers are responsible or liable for any form of damages resulting from the use or misuse of the information contained in the Elite Fitness Newsletter. Any choice to use or follow the information presented is at the reader's own risk. Neither Elite Fitness nor its writers advocate, promote or encourage the use of any illegal drugs or persuades anyone to use or possess anabolic steroids. References made directly about the effects of anabolic steroids or any other substances are for informational purposes only and are an expression of opinion.