Rec.Food.Veg (Vegetarian) FAQ

Last-Modified: 21 Dec 1998


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Rec.Food.Veg's Most Frequently Asked Questions List


  1     Definitions
    1.1   Words frequently used in
    1.2   Other confusing terms
    1.3   Terms confused with vegetarianism
  2     Frequently Asked Questions
    2.1   What is gelatin? Is there any alternative to it?
    2.2   What can be substituted for eggs?
    2.3   What is rennet? Where is it found? How can it be avoided? 
    2.4   What is miso?
    2.5   What is tofu?
    2.6   What is tempeh?
    2.7   What is TVP?
    2.8   What is seitan?
    2.9   Can you feed a cat a vegetarian diet? a dog?
    2.10  What is Nutritional Yeast? / Which ones provide B12?
    2.11  Are there vegan marshmellows available?
    2.12  What airlines serve vegetarian meals?
    2.13  Should I be worried about getting enough protein on a vegetarian diet?
    2.14  What about Vitamin B12 on a vegan diet?
    2.15  How is "vegan" pronounced?
    2.16  Can I eat at fast food places like McDonalds or Taco-Bell?
    2.17  Is maple syrup vegetarian/vegan?
    2.18  Is beer or other alcoholic beverages vegetarian/vegan?
    2.19  Is sugar vegetarian/vegan?
  3     Other sources on the Net
  4     Addresses and Phone Numbers
    4.1   Vegetarian and Vegan groups
    4.2   Cruelty-free products information
    4.3   Non-leather Products information
    4.4   Mail Order Book Outlets
  5     Recommended Literature
    5.1   Cookbooks
    5.2   Non-Fiction
    5.3   Travel & Restaurant Books
    5.4   Periodicals
  6     Animal Rights Organizations
  7     Issues
    7.1   Rainforest Beef -- two views
    7.2   Hidden Animal Products
    7.3   Names of animals versus names of animal based foods


1 Definitions

   1.1 DEFINITIONS of words frequently used in this newsgroup...

    Vegan: excludes animal flesh (meat, poultry, fish and seafood),
    animal products (eggs and dairy), and usually excludes honey and the
    wearing and use of animal products (leather, silk, wool, lanolin,
    gelatin...). The major vegan societies all disallow honey, but some
    "vegans" still use it. Some "vegans" also refuse to eat yeast

    Dietary Vegan: follows a vegan diet, but doesn't necessarily try and
    exclude non-food uses of animals.
    Vegetarian: usually broken down further into OVO-LACTO, OVO, and
                LACTO. Vegetarians may or may not try and minimize their
		non food use of animals like vegans.

      Ovo-Lacto Vegetarian: same as VEGAN, but also eats eggs and milk
      products. This is the most 'popular' form of Vegetarianism.

      Ovo Vegetarian: Same as VEGAN, but also eats eggs.
      Lacto Vegetarian: Same as VEGAN, but also eats milk products.

    Veggie -- Shortened nick-name for a VEGETARIAN; often includes VEGANs.

    Strict vegetarian: originally meant vegan, now can mean vegan or

    The term 'Vegetarian' was coined in 1847. It was first formally used
    on September 30th of that year by Joseph Brotherton and others, at
    Northwood Villa in Kent, England. The occasion being the innaugural
    meeting of the Vegetarian Society of the United Kingdom.

    The word was derived from the Latin 'vegetus', meaning whole, sound,
    fresh, lively; (it should not be confused with 'vegetable-arian' - a
    mythical human whom some imagine subsisting entirely on vegetables
    but no nuts, fruits, grains etc!)

    Prior to 1847, non-meat eaters were generally known as 'Pythagoreans'
    or adherents of the 'Pythagorean System', after the ancient Greek 
    'vegetarian' Pythagoras.
    The original definition of 'vegetarian' was "with or without eggs or
    dairy products" and that definition is still used by the Vegetarian
    Society today. However, most vegetarians in India exclude eggs from 
    their diet as did those in the classical Mediterranean lands, such 
    as Pythagoras.


  1.2  Definitions of some other confusing terms

    Semi-Vegetarian: Eats less meat than average person. See also

    Pseudo-Vegetarian: Claims to be vegetarian, but isn't.
                       Often used by VEGETARIANS to describe
                       SEMI-VEGETARIANs, and PESCETARIANs.

    Pescetarian:      Same as VEGETARIAN, but also consumes fish.
                      (often is a person avoiding factory-farming
                      techniques...) See also PSEUDO-VEGETARIAN.

    Fruitarian: Same as VEGAN, but only eats foods that don't kill the
                plant (apples can be picked without killing plant,
                carrots cannot).

    Vegetable Consumer: Means anyone who consumes vegetables. Not
                        necessarily a VEGETARIAN.

    Herbivore: Mainly eats grass or plants. Not necessarily a

    Plant-Eater: Mainly eats plants. Not necessarily a VEGETARIAN.

    Nonmeat-Eater: Does not eat meat. Most definitions do not consider
                   fish, fowl or seafood to be meat. Animal fats and
                   oils, bonemeal and skin are not considered meat.


  1.3 Terms that are confusing when talking about VEGETARIANs

    Kosher: Made according to a complex set of Jewish dietary laws.
            Does not imply VEGAN in any case. Does not imply OVO-LACTO
            VEGETARIAN in any case. Even KOSHER products containing
            milk products may contain some types of animals which are
            not considered 'meat'.

    Pareve/Parve: One category in KOSHER dietary laws. Made without
                  meat or milk products or their derivatives. Eggs and
                  true fish are pareve, shellfish are not.

    Nondairy: Does not have enough percentage of milkfat to be called
              dairy. May actually contain milk or milk derivatives.
    Nonmeat: Made without meat. May include eggs, milk, cheese.
             Sometimes even included animal fats, seafood, fish, fowl.


2 Frequently Asked Questions

  2.1 What is gelatin? Is there any alternative to it?

    Gelatin (used to make Jell-o and other desserts) is the boiled bones
    of animals. An alternative substance is called Agar-Agar, which is
    derived from seaweed. Another is made from the root of the Kuzu.
    Agar-Agar is sold in noodle-like strands, powder, or in long blocks,
    and is usually white-ish in colour. Some Kosher gelatines are made
    with agar-agar, some are not. Some things that are vegan that are
    replacing gelatin are: guar gum and carageenan. Only some
    'emulsifiers' are vegan.

  2.2 What can be substituted for eggs?

    A company called Ener-G makes a powdered egg-substitute that they
    claim is a suitable replacement for eggs in cooking. It costs
    about $5.00 (U.S.) for the equivalent of 9 or 10 dozen eggs, and
    it contains no animal products.

    2 oz of soft tofu can be blended with some water and added to
    substitute for an egg to add consistency.

    One Tbsp flax seeds (found in natural food stores) with 3 Tbsp
    water can be blended for 2 to 3 minutes, or boiled for 10 minutes
    or until desired consistency is achieved to substitute for one egg.

    1/2 mashed banana

    1/4 cup applesauce or pureed fruit

    1 tsp. soy flour plus 1 Tbsp. water to substitute for one egg.

  2.3 What is rennet? Where is it found? How can it be avoided?? 

    Rennet is derived from the stomach linings of calves. Rennet is
    used to make cheese. True VEGETARIAN cheeses do not have rennet in
    them, but a substitute. These substitutes can be either from
    vegetable sources, or may be created in a lab. Vegetable rennet is
    usually called 'rennin' to distinguish it from the animal-derived
    type.  ** NOTE ABOUT SOY CHEESE: Some soy cheeses contain cassein
    which is a milk-product. The only true VEGAN cheeses in the U.S.
    are: SOYMAGE and VEGAN RELLA. In the U.K. there is also a vegan
    cheese: SCHEESE.

  2.4 What is miso?

    Miso is made from fermented soybeans, and usually is found in a
    paste form. It is used as a flavouring agent, and for soup stocks.
    Storing Miso: If it is a dark miso, like hatcho miso, or red miso,
    it will keep for a while unrefrigerated, especially if it is 3
    year miso.  However, it does not hurt to refrigerate it. If it is
    sweet miso like yellow, mellow white, or sweet white, it will not
    keep unless refrigerated. Also, if the miso has been pasteurized,
    it should be kept refrigerated. Warning! Some Japanese brands of Miso
    contain fish stock!
      Nutritional value, per tablespoon:
        calories   36 g.
        protein     2 g.
        carbs       5 g.
        fat         1 g.
        sodium     629 mg.
      (from Pennington, "Food Values of Portions Commonly Used")

  2.5 What is tofu?

    Tofu, or Soy Bean Curd, is a whitish substance made from soybeans.
    It has a variety of uses in vegetarian cooking because of its
    bland taste that soaks up other flavours. It comes in a couple of
    varieties, basically amounting to soft and firm style. Soft tofu is
    often used to make frostings for cakes, dips for chips and
    vegetables, while the firmer style is generally used in stir-fries
    and soups where it will hold its shape.

  2.6 What is tempeh?

    Tempeh is a somewhat meatlike substance made from fermented
    soybeans.  It is used in dishes like sloppy-joes, and has a rather
    strong taste compared to tofu.

  2.7 What is TVP?

    Textured Vegetable Protein (or TVP) is a meat-like substance that
    is used to boost the nutritional content of meals, while still
    remaining relatively attractive-tasting. TVP may have a rather
    high fat content, so check the label. If it contains "defatted"
    soya flour, it should be low fat.

  2.8 What is seitan?

    Seitan is a form of wheat gluten.  It is a high protein, low fat,
    no cholesterol (of course) food that is usually found in the
    refrigerated section of most organic groceries/health food stores.
    It is usually near the tofu and typically comes in small tubs
    (like margarine tubs).  It is brown and sometimes comes in strips
    1/4 to 1/2 inches thick.  Seitan is made from whole wheat flour
    which is mixed with water and kneaded.  This dough undergoes a
    simple process of rinsing and mixing to remove the starch and some
    bran until a gluten is obtained. After boiling in water, this
    glutenous dough is called Kofu, which can be further processed in
    many ways.  One of which is seitan.  Kofu becomes seitan by
    simmering in a stock of tamari soy sauce, water and kombu sea
    vegetable.  Seitan can be used in sandwiches, or to make dishes
    such as sweet and sour seitan, seitan stir fry, salisbury seitan,

  2.9 Can you feed a cat a vegetarian diet? A dog?

    Both animals can be fed a vegetarian diet, although neither is a
    vegan by nature -- dogs are omnivores, and cats are carnivores. While
    both dogs and cats belong to the class carnivora, this doesn't mean a
    lot, so does the panda bear and their diet is basically vegan. By
    nature cats and dogs wouldn't eat anything like what is commonly
    found in a can of pet food either. Special diets must be provided for
    cats, as they require an amino acid called taurine -- found in the
    muscles of animals. Synthetic taurine has been developed (and has
    been used in commercial (non vegetarian) pet foods for years), and
    vegetarian cats should be fed it as a supplement. Taurine deficiency
    can result in blindness and even death. Cats also require pre-formed
    vitamin A and arachidonic acid. The companies listed below provide
    all these essential ingredients in their cat foods. Ask your vet
    about changing your pet's diet.

     Harbingers of a New Age
     717 E. Missoula Ave, Troy MT 59935-9609 Phone: (406) 295-4944
     [vegecat supplement for vegan or lacto-ovovegetarian cats]

     Wow-Bow Distributors
     309 Burr Rd., East Northport, NY 11731
     (516)449-8572, 1-800-326-0230 (outside of NY only)
     Dogs: 20lb. bag is $20.35 + shipping 
     Cats: supplement, 15oz. is $15.95
     Call: Nature's Recipe for location of a distributor
           near you. 1-800-843-4008

     For cats with food allergies, Wysong has developed
     a hypoallergenic diet:

       Canine/Feline Anergen III, a vegetarian diet for
       food sensitive cats, contains special high-protein
       Wysong Corporation
       Dept. CF, 1880 N. Eastman Ave.,
       Midland, MI 48640.

     Natural Life Pet Products, Inc. (For dogs)
     Available from veterinarians and pet food centres.
     Natural Life Pet Products, Inc.
     Frontenac, Kansas 66762.

     Evolution Healthy Pet Food
     Evolution Diet Bldg.,  287 East 6th Street,
     Suite 70, St. Paul, MN 51101
     Tel : (651)228-0632 Fax : (651)228-0467

  2.10 What is Nutritional Yeast? / Which ones provide B12?

    Nutritional yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a food yeast,
    grown on a molasses solution, and comes in powder or flake form.
    It has a pleasant-tasting, cheesy flavour and can be used directly
    on vegetables, baked potatoes, popcorn and other foods as a
    condiment. It is different from brewer's yeast or torula yeast.
    It can often be used by those sensitive to other yeasts.

    Ms. Carlyee Hammer at Universal Products (the parent company of
    Red Star, (414)-935-3910) indicates that ONLY ONE variety of Red
    Star nutritional yeast (product number T-6635+) is fortified with
    B12 at the level of 8 ug/g.

    Ms. Carlyee also claimed that other varieties of "nutritional"
    yeast contain vitamin B12 at less than 1 ug/g, but was unaware
    whether this was determined by microbial assay or not.  Microbial
    assays for vitamin B12 are no longer considered reliable due to
    problems with the cross-reactivity of corrinoids. She indicated
    that Hazelton Laboratories (608-241-7210) did the assay.

    From the above two paragraphs, one might conclude that Red Star
    T-6635+ nutritional yeast, and probably no other variety, is a
    reliable dietary source of B12 at this time.

  2.11 Are there vegan marshmellows available?

    Yes, from a company called Emes located in Lombard, IL, U.S.A. Phone:
    (708) 627-6204. The package lists gelatin, but it is not animal
    derived. Most "kosher gelatin" isn't vegetarian (it's either made from
    fish cartilage or supervised by a less strict rabbinic authority that
    permits regular gelatin (a recent issue of "Kashrus" has an article on
    kosher gelatin)), but Emes kosher gelatin is made from carrageenan (and
    you can often buy Emes "gelatin" separately).

  2.12 What airlines serve vegetarian meals?

    Most airlines now serve vegetarian meals. Call the airline ahead
    of time to make your request, and it is suggested that you confirm
    your meal twice. For more information have a look, in Subject 3
    below, at The World Guide to Vegetarianism. The '/other2' file 
    contains details of individual airlines.

  2.13 Should I be worried about getting enough protein on a
       vegetarian diet?

    The short answer is: "No, sufficient protein can be obtained by
    eating a variety of foods", but here is a longer explanation:

      Protein is synthesized by the human body out of individual amino
      acids.  The body breaks down food into individual amino acids
      and then reassembles the proteins it requires.

      All amino acids must be present in the body to make proteins.
      Those that can be synthesized from other amino acids are called
      "unessential" amino acids.  You can live on a diet deficient of
      these if you eat enough extra of the other amino acids to
      synthesize these.  Those that cannot be synthesized from other
      amino acids are called "essential" amino acids and must be
      present in the diet.

      Protein that contains all essential amino acids is called
      "complete" protein.  Protein that contains some, but not all
      essential amino acids is called "incomplete" protein.  It used
      to be believed that all amino acids must be eaten at the same
      time to form complete proteins.  We now know that incomplete
      proteins can be stored in the body for many days to be combined
      with other incomplete proteins.  As long as all essential amino
      acids are in the diet, it does not matter if the proteins are
      complete or incomplete.

      The amount of protein recorded on food labels only lists the
      complete proteins.  A product may contain much higher amounts of
      incomplete protein that is not listed.  Combining such products
      may increase the total amount of protein beyond the levels

      The 1989 revision of the FDA's RDA suggests a protein intake of
      44-63 grams.  Many scientists think this number is too high.
      Most scientists agree with this number.

    Here is another (from "Physicians Committee for Responsible


        In the past, some people believed one could never get too much
        protein.  In the early 1900's, Americans were told to eat well
        over 100 grams of protein a day. And as recently as the
        1950's, health-conscious people were encouraged to boost their
        protein intake.  The reality is that the average American
        takes in twice the amount of protein he or she needs. Excess
        protein has been linked with osteoporosis, kidney disease,
        calcium stones in the urinary tract, and some cancers. Despite
        all this, many people still worry about getting enough

        The Building Blocks of Life:

        People build the proteins of their bodies from amino acids,
        which, in turn, come from the proteins they eat. Protein is
        abundant in nearly all of the foods people eat. A varied diet
        of beans, peas, lentils, grains, and vegetables contains all
        of the essential amino acids. Animal products are high in
        protein, but are undesirable because of their high fat and
        cholesterol content. Fat and cholesterol promote heart
        disease, cancer, and many other health problems. One can
        easily meet the body's protein requirements with plant foods.
        It used to be believed that various plant foods had to be
        eaten together to get their full protein value, but many
        nutrition authorities, including the American Dietetic
        Association, have determined that intentional combining is not
        necessary.1 As long as one's diet includes a variety of
        grains, legumes, and vegetables, protein needs are easily met.

  2.14 What about Vitamin B12 on a vegan diet?

      The data on B12 is still coming in, so it is impossible to say
      "Its no problem....", however, the latest information suggests
      that acquiring enough B12 is not as problematic as it was once
      thought. If you are concerned about inadequate B12, there are
      many foods which are fortified with B12, in addition to vitamin
      pills. Here is the most recent information:

        From the book:
        Simply Vegan: Quick Vegetarian Meals, by Debra Wasserman and
        Nutrition Section by Reed Mangels, Ph.D., R.D.
        Published (1990/1991) by the Vegetarian Resource Group,
        P.O. Box 1463, Baltimore, MD  21203, (410) 366-VEGE.
        ISBN 0-931411-05-X
          Vitamin B12
          Summary: The requirement for vitamin B12 is very low.
          Non-animal sources include Nutri-Grain cereal (1.4 ounces
          supplies the adult RDA) and Red Star T-6635+ nutritional
          yeast (1-2 teaspoons supplies the adult RDA).  It is
          especially important for pregnant and lactating women,
          infants, and children to have reliable sources of vitamin
          B12 in their diets.
          Vitamin B12 is needed for cell division and blood formation.
          Plant foods do not contain vitamin B12 except when they are
          contaminated by microorganisms. Thus, vegans need to look to
          other sources to get vitamin B12 in their diet. Although the
          minimum requirement for vitamin B12 is quite small, 1/1000 of a
          milligram (1 microgram) a day for adults, a vitamin B12
          deficiency is a very serious problem leading ultimately to
          irreversible nerve damage. Prudent vegans will include sources
          of vitamin B12 in their diets. However, vitamin B12 deficiency
          is actually quite rare even among long-term vegans.

          Bacteria in the human intestinal tract do make vitamin B12.
          However, the majority of these bacteria are found in the
          large intestine.  Vitamin B12 does not appear to be absorbed
          from the large intestine.
          Normally, vitamin B12 is secreted into the small intestine
          along with bile and other secretions and is reabsorbed, but
          this does not add to the body's vitamin B12 stores.  Since
          small amounts of vitamin B12 are not reabsorbed, it is
          possible that eventually vitamin B12 stores will be used up.
          However, we may be quite efficient at re-using vitamin B12
          so that deficiency is rare.
          Some bacteria in the small intestine apparently produce
          vitamin B12 which can be absorbed.  This is one possible
          explanation for why so few cases of vitamin B12 deficiency
          are reported.  Perhaps our bacteria are making vitamin B12
          for us.
          At this time, research is continuing on vitamin B12
          requirements.  Some researchers have even hypothesized that
          vegans are more efficient than the general public in
          absorbing vitamin B12.  Certainly for other nutrients, such
          as iron, absorption is highest on low dietary intakes.
          However, these are only speculations.  We need to look for
          reliable dietary sources for vitamin B12 until we can
          determine whether or not other sources can supply adequate
          vitamin B12.
          Although some vegans may get vitamin B12 from inadequate
          hand washing, this is not a reliable vitamin B12 source.
          Vegans who previously ate animal-based foods may have
          vitamin B12 stores that will not be depleted for 20 to 30
          years or more.  However, long-term vegans, infants,
          children, and pregnant and lactating women (due to increased
          needs) should be especially careful to get enough vitamin
          Few reliable vegan food sources for vitamin B12 are known.
          Tempeh, miso, and seaweed often are labeled as having large
          amounts of vitamin B12.  However, these products are not
          reliable sources of the vitamin because the amount of
          vitamin B12 present depends on the type of processing the
          food undergoes.  Also, Victor Herbert, a leading authority
          on vitamin B12 states that the amount on the label cannot be
          trusted because the current method for measuring vitamin B12
          in foods measures both active and inactive forms of vitamin
          B12.  The inactive form (also called analogues) actually
          interferes with normal vitamin B12 absorption and
          metabolism. These foods may contain more inactive than
          active vitamin B12.
          The RDA (which includes a safety factor) for adults for
          vitamin B12 is 2 micrograms daily.  Two micrograms of
          vitamin B12 are provided by 1 teaspoon of Red Star T-6635+
          yeast powder or 1-1/2 teaspoons of mini-flake yeast or 2
          rounded teaspoons of large-flake yeast.  Of course, since
          vitamin B12 is stored, you could use larger amounts of
          nutritional yeast less often.  A number of the recipes in
          this book contain nutritional yeast.
          Another alternative source of vitamin B12 is fortified
          cereal.  Nutri-Grain cereal does contain vitamin B12 at this
          time and 1.4 ounces of Nutri-Grain, or a little less than 1
          cup, will provide 2 micrograms of vitamin B12.  We recommend
          checking the label of your favorite cereal since
          manufacturers have been known to stop including vitamin B12.
          New labeling laws do not require labels to include the
          actual amount of vitamin B12 in a food.  However, added
          vitamin B12 will be listed under ingredients and you can
          write to the company inquiring about the amount of vitamin
          B12 in a serving.
          Other sources of vitamin B12 are fortified soy milk (check
          the label as this is rarely available in the US), vitamin
          B12 fortified meat analogues (food made from wheat gluten or
          soybeans to resemble meat, poultry or fish) [Midland Harvest
          products contain B12.], and vitamin B12 supplements. There
          are vitamin supplements which do not contain animal

  2.15 How is "vegan" pronounced?
    The word was invented by the UK Vegan society in the 1940's They
    pronounced it "vee-gn". This is the most common pronunciation in
    the UK today. No one can say this pronunciation in "wrong", so
    this is also the politically correct pronunciation.
    In the US, common pronunciations are "vee-jan" and "vay-gn" in
    addition to "vee-gn", though the American Vegan Society
    says the correct pronunciation is as per the UK.
    The UK, and US and other places have other pronunciations.
    This is sometimes a touchy subject, so be prepared to change your

  2.16  Can I eat at fast food places like McDonalds or Taco-Bell?
     Unfortunately there is no simple answer to this. Many Companies
     allow individual stores to decide part of their menu, or the
     ingredients used. In general, you should:
     1. Ask for a nutrition information booklet. Asking an employee may
        not be enough.
     2. If the food in question contains an undesired element, ask if
        it can be substituted for, or deleted altogether.
     3. Fill out a comment card, if you think their menu does not have
        enough selection. If the company receives enough of these, they
        may decide to follow up on them.

     4. Taco-Bell do not use lard anymore in their cooking.

  2.17 Is Maple Syrup vegetarian/vegan?

      Yes, rumours abound about maple syrup containing pork fat.
      The US vegan society has checked all known sources and found
      that they are all suitable for vegans.

  2.18 Is beer or other alcoholic beverages vegetarian/vegan?
      Finings are substances often added to beer (especially British beer
      or "bitter") or wine during fermentation to help clarify out
      particles and yeast, leaving the finished product clear. Finings
      are not present in the finished product in any significant
      quantity, their purpose is to settle out of the product, not stay
      in suspension. OTOH, if a chemical analysis were to be performed,
      there would probably be a few molecules of a fining agent still to
      be found. Some finings are animal derived, the most common are
      isinglass, made from the dried swim bladders of sturgeons, gelatin,
      egg or blood albumin (in wines) and caseinates (from milk, also
      used in wines). However many non-animal derived sources also exist,
      the commonest ones being bentonite (clay), Irish Moss (a seaweed),
      silicon dioxide and polyclar. Beer brewed according to the
      Reinheitsgebot (German purity law) is not prohibited from using
      finings since it was generally assumed that finings were not
      present in the finished product.

      Animal products are also sometimes used to alter the flavour of the
      wine/beer or control the head on a beer. See the
      FAQ for more details (where a lot of this has been stolen.-)

      Most spirits/mixers are suitable for vegans, common exceptions
      include some vodkas (may be cleared through bone charcoal) and
      Campari (contains cochineal, an insect derived colouring).

  2.19 Is sugar vegetarian/vegan?

      Some refined sugars use bone charcoal as a decolourant. In the UK
      Tate and Lyle and Billingtons sugars are free of animal substances.
      British Sugar, trading as Silver Spoon (the largest UK supplier)
      state that their white sugar is vegan but they cannot guarantee
      their brown sugars as some bone charcoal may be used by their
      suppliers. No data is presently available concerning sugar in other


3  Other sources of information on the Net

  The most prominent World Wide Web (WWW) index to online vegetarian
  information is the Vegetarian Pages -

  An ftp site where you can get some vegetarian information is:

  The network address for another vegetarian list: (internet) or VEGLIFE@VTVM1 (BitNet).
    It is a LISTSERV type list. To subscribe, send mail to with the command "sub veglife Your Full
    Name" in the body. Also try the commands "help" and "index

  The network address for a vegan list:
    It is a LISTPROC type list. To subscribe, send mail to with the command "sub VEGAN-L Your Full
    Name" in the body. Also try the commands "help" and "index

  An ftp site where you can get some vegetarian recipes:
    the recipes are in the nicbbs.391 subdirectory and have a filename
    of VEG_RECI and a filetype of either DIGEST, INDEX, or VOLxxxxx.
    Note that this is a VM system so you MUST do the cd nicbbs.391
    before you do anything after logging in as anonymous, otherwise
    you will have no working directory.

    The World Guide to Vegetarianism is a 14-part listing of vegetarian
    restaurants, vegetarian-friendly restaurants, natural food stores,
    vegetarian organizations, etc.  Each part is posted on an independent
    (approximately quarterly) schedule to,, rec.answers, and news.answers.

    You can obtain the latest officially posted copy of this guide by
    sending an e-mail to with any combination of
    the following lines in your message body:
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/index
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/usa1
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/usa2
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/usa3
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/usa4
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/usa5
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/california1
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/california2
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/california3
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/canada1
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/canada2
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/europe1
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/europe2
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/other1
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide/other2
      send usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/faq (you're reading it now)
    The Guide is also available via anonymous ftp from in the
    directory /pub/usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/guide. The FAQ for is in the file /pub/usenet/news.answers/vegetarian/faq.
    On the WWW, the Guide may be found in easy-to-use HTML format using
    the following URL for the Vegetarian Pages:
    For submitting updates to this document, the most preferred way is by
    using forms accessed via this WWW site.

  An ftp site for a list of Indian restaurants (in the US): under ~/pub/indian

  Vegetarian recipes can be found in the newsgroup
   This newsgroup usually breaks down all recipes into VEGAN, OVO, LACTO
   and OVO-LACTO categories.

  A good WWW site to peruse and find out more information is: is being archived at in the directory:


  Vegetarian Resource Group, c/o, will answer questions
  related to vegetarianism.

  For a list of other resources available take a look at the Internet
  section in '/other2' in the above World Guide to Vegetarianism.


4 Addresses and Phone Numbers

  4.1 Vegetarian and Vegan Groups:


      Vegan Society of Australia
      PO Box 85, Seaford, VIC 3198. Phone (03) 862-1686

      Australian Vegetarian Society (NSW)
      PO Box 65, Paddington NSW 2021, Ph. (02) 698 4339; Fax (02) 310 5365

      Australian Vegetarian Society (ACT)
      PO Box 1786, Canberra ACT 2601, Ph. (06) 247 2882; Fax (06) 248 5343

      Vegetarian/Vegan Society of Queensland
      PO Box 400, South Brisbane QLD 4101, (07) 300 1274; Fax (07) 300 9320

      Vegetarian and Natural Health (NQ)
      PO Box 1698, Aitken Vale QLD 4814, Ph (077)  75 3465

      Australian Vegetarian Society (Vic)
      PO Box 220, North Melbourne VIC 3051, Ph (03) 329 1374

      Vegetarian Society of Western Australia
      PO Box 220, North Perth WA 6006, Ph/fax (09) 275 5682; Ph (09) 474 2172

      Vegetarian Society of South Australia
      PO Box 46, Rundle Mall, Adelaide SA 5000, Ph (08) 261 3194

      The Vegan Society (NSW)
      PO Box 467, Broadway, NSW 2007. Phone (02) 436-1373

      Organization For Farm Animal Liberation
      PO BOX E65, East Parramatta, NSW 2150. Phone (02) 683 5991 (AH)

      The Jewish Vegetarian Society (NSW)
      C/- Tom Kramer 95/97 The Boulevarde, Strathfield, NSW 2135.
      Phone (02) 642-3110 (AH) or (02) 683 5991 (BH)

      The Australian Natural Hygiene Society, "Hygia"
      31 Cobar Road, Arcadia, NSW 2159.
      Phone (02) 653-1115 or (02) 651-2457

      Tableland Vegetarian Society
      PO Box 25, Millaa Millaa, QLD 4886

      Canada EarthSave Society
        Suite 103 - 1093 West Broadway, Vancouver, BC,  V6H 1E2
        Phone (604) 731-5885.
      Canada Earthsave describes itself as "an educational non-profit
      organization that promotes awareness of the environmental and
      health consequences of our food choices.

      The Vegetarian Dining Club of Ottawa
	contact ba285@FreeNet.Carleton.Ca, or, Tel:(613)729-7282


      AUTONOME TIERRECHTS-AKTION (ATA), c/o Autonomes Zentrum
      Alte Bergheimer Str. 7a 69115 Heidelberg
      Phone: (prefix) (0)6221-385702

      Prachter Str. 1
      57589 Pracht
      Tel: (+49)2292/40014	Fax: (+49)2292/40016

      Grueneburgweg 154, 60323 Frankfurt
      Phone: (prefix) (0)69-559589
      c/o CILA, Braunschweiger Str. 22, 44145 Dortmund

      Blumenstr. 3, 30159 Hannover, 
      Phone and Fax: (prefix) (0)511-3632050
      They publish the paper "DER VEGETARIER"

      also see


      Nederlandse Vegetarirsbond (Dutch Vegetarian Society), Larenseweg 26,
      1221 CS Hilversum, tel 035-6834796, fax 035-6834813

      PETA Nederland, PO Box 810, 2501 CV Den Haag, tel. 070-3563130

      Nederlandse Vereniging voor Veganisme (Dutch vegan Society), Postbus
      1087, 6801 BB Arnhem, tel 026-4420746

      Orpheus, Animal friendly BBS, +31 (0)20 4941119 (24h/d, 28k8)

      Proefdiervrij, the biggest society against vivisection in the

      Digidorp Vegatopia (digital village Vegatopia) at

      Dutch magazine for vegatarians: Sla! (salad).
      Available at all magazine stands in Holland, issue every 2 months.
      Recipes, interviews and food info. More info:

      Vegetarisk Information, Valborg Alle 34, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark,
      tel. +45 31 17 99 11

      Dansk Vegetar-Forening, Borups Alle 131, DK-2000 Frederiksberg,
      Denmark, tel. +45 38 34 24 48 (old society - not easy to get in
      contact with...)

      Vegetarianerforeningen, att. Paal Thorbjoernsen, Smedgata 7,
      N-0651 Oslo, Norway, tel. +47 22 68 88 18

      Svenska Vegetariska Foereningen, Tjaerhovsgatan 1, Box 4256,
      S-102 66 Stockholm, Sweden, tel. +46 87 02 11 16 (9-11)

    United Kingdom:

      The Vegetarian Society of the U.K. 
        Parkdale, Dunham Road, Altringham, Cheshire, WA14 4QG
        (061)928-0793 (country code 44, for overseas callers)
      publishes "The Vegetarian" -- yours with membership

      The Vegan Society
        7 Battle Road,
        St Leonards-on-Sea,
        East Sussex TN37 7AA
       Phone: (0424) 427393
       publishes "The Vegan" quarterly, free with membership

	PO Box 212
	Cheshire  CW1 4SD

      London Vegans hold monthly meetings on the last Wednesday of
      every month  at Millman Street Community
      Rooms, 50 Millman Street, London WC1 . The meetings usually run from 18.30  to 21.30 and they usually have guest speakers. All are
      welcome. In addition to the monthly meetings they have regular
      trips to restaurants and monthly walks.

    United States:

      American Vegan Society
        501 Old Harding Highway, Malag, NJ 08328
      publishes "Ahimsa" magazine.

      North American Vegetarian Society
        P.O. Box 72, Dolgerville, NY 13329
      publishes "Vegetarian Voice"

      Vegetarian Resource Group
        P.O. Box 1463, Baltimore, MD 21203
      publishes "Vegetarian Journal"
      Hotline for Vegetarian's questions:

      Vegetarian Awareness Network:
      1-800-USA-VEGE, (615)558-8343 in Nashville, TN

      Vegetarian Times Bookshelf
        P.O. Box 446, Mt. Morris, IL 61054

   Other European:
	           E U R O P E A N   V E G E T A R I A N   U N I O N  (EVU)
	              Office:    Vondelstraat 9A2, NL-1054 GB Amsterdam
	              Phone/Fax: 0031-206169146
	                    Information and Contacts in Europe:
	Denmark    : Henrik Hedegard, Olivenvej 57, DK-6000 Kolding
	Belgium    : Vegetariersbond vzw, Koewacht 16A, B-9190 Stekene
	England    : Vegetarian Society (UK), Parkdale, Dunham Road,
	             Altrincham, Cheshire WA14 4QG
	England    : VIVA! Juliet Gellatly, PO Box 212, Crewe, Cheshire, CW1 4SD
	England    : Oxford Vegetarians, 57 Sharland Close, Grove Oxon, OX12 0OAF
	Finland    : Elavan Ravinnon Yhdistys Ry.,Kasarminkatu 19A, SF-00130 Helsinki
	France     : Jean Montagard, Chemin Combe Nicette, F-06330 Roquefort-les-Pins
	France     : Gertrud Krueger, Rue Brandmatt 22, F-68380 Metzeral
	Italy      : Associazione Vegetariana Italiana, Via Bazzini 4, I-20131 Milano
	Lithuania  : Eduardas Mickevicius, Antakalnio 67-17, LIT-2040 Vilnius
	Netherlands: Nederlandse Vegetariersbond, Larenseweg 26, NL-1221 CM Hilversum
	Netherlands: Nederlandse Vereiniging voor Veganisme, Postbus 1087,
	             NL-6801 BB Arnheim
	Ireland    : Vegetarian Society of Ulster, 66 Ravenshill Gardens,
	             Ballynafeigh, Belfast
	Norway     : Norges Vegetariske Landsvorbun, Munkedamsveien 3B, N-0161 Oslo 1
	Austria    : Oestereichische Vegetarier-Union, E. Laupert,
	             Brucknerstrasse 59/18, A-8010 Graz
	Poland     : Krystyna Chomicz-Jung, Gdanska 2m.97, PL-01-633 Warszaw
	Romania    : Dr. Mircea Matusan, Str. Costei no 12, RO-3400 Cluj-Napoca
	Russia     : Tatyana Pavlova, Volsky bulvar d39 k3 kv23, RUS-109462 Moscow
	Sweden     : Vegetariska Foreningen, Box 4256, S-10266 Stockholm
	Sweden     : Ulla Troeng, Klovervagen 6, S-61700 Mariefred
	Switzerland: "regeneration" Edwin Heller, Schwarzenbachweg 16, CH 8049 Zurich
	Switzerland: Schweizer Verein f. Vegetarismus, Renato Pichler, Postfach,
	             CH-9466 Sennwald
	Slowakia   : Vegetarianska spolocnost, Prazka 9, SK-81104 Bratislava
	Spain      : Spanish Vegan Society, Apartado Postal 38127, E-28080 Madrid
	Contact to the EVU: Hildegund Scholvien, Friedhofstrasse 12, 67693 Fischbach,
	                    Germany - Phone: 06305-272, Fax: 06305-5256
   The World Guide to Vegetarianism (see Subject 3 above) lists all
   all known relevant organisations under the appropriate country.
  4.2 Cruelty-free products information

    Route 1 Box 206, Milner, GA 30257

    The Body Shop -- in local shopping centers
    some of its products may contain dairy

    Beauty Without Cruelty 
    17 SW. 12th St., New York, NY, 10011
    P.O. Box 19373 San Rafael, CA 94913

    Compassionate Consumer
    P.O. Box 27, Jericho, NY 11753

    Heart's Desire
    1307 Dwight Way, Dept C, Berkeley CA 94702

    Humane Street USA
    467 Saratoga Ave. #300, San Jose, CA 95129

    Spare the Animals
    P.O. Box 233, Tiverton, RI 02878

    Vegan Street Company
    P.O. Box 5525, Rockville, MD 

    PETA: write for a free list of companies.
    YOUR BODY, Unit 53, Milmead Industrial Estate, Mill Mead Road, London N17 9QU
      tel:  081-808-6948 fax:  081-801-1611

    MARTHA HILL Ltd., The Old Vicarage, Laxton, Corby, Northants, NN17 3AT
      tel:  0780-450259 (24 hour) fax:  0780-450398
      advice line: 0780-450284 (8am-5pm Mon-Fri)
      (uses honey in some of the products)

    Veganline, 2 Avenue Gardens, London SW14 8BP sell cheap leather-
    substitute jackets mailorder. They do despatch work for other vegan
    companies: 0181 369 3535 (HTTP://

    MOKO, Unit 12, Four Ashes Insustrial Estate, Station Rd, Four Ashes,
    West Midlands WV10 7DB sell cheapish leather substitute shoes and
    jackets: 01902 798 988

    UK leather substitutes are covered by a new page on the world wide web:

      Grueneburgweg 154, 60323 Frankfurt
      Phone: (prefix) (0)69-559589
    Further US sources are listed in The World Guide to Vegetarianism
    file '/usa1'. See Subject 3 above.

  4.3 Non-leather shoe outlets

    See the posting "FAQ:Leather Alternatives" in for a
    complete list of non-leather products or look at:
    or contact Tom Swiss on

  4.4 Mail Order Book Outlets

    The Mail Order Catalog
    P.O. Box 180, Summertown, TN 38483
    1-800-695-2241 or 615-964-2241 or email


    Vegetarian Resource Group, P.O. Box 1463, Baltimore, MD 21203
      (410)366-VEGE or mail

    Further US sources are listed in The World Guide to Vegetarianism 
    file '/usa1'. See subject 3 above.


5 Recommended Literature

  5.1 Cookbooks

    The Vegan Cookbook, Alan Wakeman and Gordon Baskerville London,
    Faber and Faber, 1986;  this has basic as well as complex stuff. 

    Friendly Foods, Brother Ron Pickarski, Berkely, Ten Speed, 1991,

    Laurel's Kitchen

    Moosewood (all selections)

    The Complete Vegetarian Cuisine by Rose Elliot; many dishes are

    Fast Vegetarian Feasts by Martha Rose Shulman

    Tassajara Cooking; cooking made simple!

    The Vegetarian Epicure I and II by Anna Thomas

    American Whole Foods Cookbook

    The How to Overthrow Any Government Without Violence Cookbook by
    James P. Martin; vegan cookbook, may be out of print

    The Joy of Cooking Naturally by Peggy Dameron; vegan, Seventh Day
    Adventist (but not 'preachy'), fairly low-fat, includes honey.

    Country Life Vegetarian Cookbook ed. by Diana J. Fleming; see

    Of These Ye May Eat Freely; see above, special nightshade-free

    The Art of Indian Vegetarian Cooking by Yamuna devi

    Eastern Vegetarian Cooking by Madhur Jaffrey

    Cooking from an Italian Garden plb. by HBJ

    The Cranks Cookbook; recipes from London restaurant "Cranks"

    The Findhorn Cookbook by Barbara Friedlander; feeds 1 to 100... 

    The Apartment Vegetarian Cookbook by Lindsay Miller

    Back to Eden by Jethro Kloss; definitive herb book with recipes. 

    Bean Banquets from Boston to Bombay by Patricia R. Gregory

    Neither Fish Nor Fowl by Sarah Beattie. 

    Eat More, Weigh Less by Dean Ornish, M.D.

    The Seventh-Day Diet, "How the 'healthiest people in America' live
    better, longer, slimmer -- and how you can too", by Chris Rucker
    and Jan Hoffman. Random House, New York, 1991. ISBN 0-394-58473-2.

  5.2 Non-Fiction

    Diet for a New America 

    Diet for a Small Planet

    Animal Liberation

    The MacDougal Plan and The MacDougal Program

    A Vegetarian Sourcebook by Keith Akers

    Vegan Nutrition: Pure and Simple by Micheal Klaper, MD

    Pregnancy, Children, and the Vegan Diet by Micheal Klaper, MD

    Vegan Nutrition, a survey of research by Gill Langley MA PhD
    The Vegetable Passion by Janet Barkas; history of vegetarianism. 

    Simply Vegan by Debra Wasserman, $12.00 from VRG, Box 1463,
    Baltimore, MD 21203

    THE VEGAN GUIDE TO NEW YORK CITY now in its fourth printing is a detailed 
    directory of reviews to more than 100 restaurants in Manhattan and 
    Brooklyn serving delicious meals without any animal products.  Hailed in 
    your key to vegetarian and vegan cuisine in the restaurant capital of the 
    world.  To order, send $4.78 (USA) or $8.00 (world) to Max Friedman, 2231 
    McKinley Street, Berkeley, CA 94703.

    The animal rights FAQ and lots of other information is available from:
      or from Donald Graft on:

  5.3 Travel & Restaurant Books World Guide to Vegetarianism. See listing in
    above Subject 3 of this FAQ for details.

    Vegetarian Journal's Guide to Natural Foods Restaurants in the
    U.S. and Canada. 1993. ISBN 0-89529-571-7. $11.95. By the
    Vegetarian Resource Group, PO Box 1463, Baltimore, MD 21203.
    Tel. (410) 366-VEGE. Lists restaurants, vacation spots, camps,
    vegetarian organizations.

    The Vegan Society's "The Vegan Holiday and Restaurant Guide"
    (concentrating on England, Scotland and Wales).

    "Europe on 10 Salads a Day" by Mary Jane and Greg Edwards
    Mustang Publishing, P.O. Box 3004, Memphis, TN, 38173.
    Cost: $9.95 (U.S.) plus $1.50 postage.
    Includes: prices, cover charges, hours, addresses, and credit card
    acceptance, for restaurants in  most European countries.

  5.4 Periodicals
    Good Medicine, PCRM, PO Box 6322, Wash. DC 20015 (202) 686-2210
    North American Vegetarian Society (Vegetarian Voice magazine)
        $18 US/$21 foreign, NAVS, PO Box 72, Dolgeville, NY 13329
    Vegetarian Times, (800) 435-9610 or (708) 848-8100

    Vegetarian Gourmet, Chitra Publications, 2 Public Avenue,
        Montrose, PA

    The Vegan, The Vegan Society, 7 Battle Road, St Leonards-on-Sea,
        East Sussex TN37 7AA, UK.

    Ahimsa, American Vegan Society, 501 Old Harding Highway, Malag,
        NJ 08328.  (609) 694-2887

    Vegetarian Journal, Vegetarian Resource Group, P.O. Box 1463,
        Baltimore, MD 21203. (410) 366-8343

    BBC Vegetarian Good Food Guide, P.O. Box 425, Woking GU21 1GP, UK


6 Animal Rights Organizations

  Humane Society of the U.S.
  2100 L Lt., N.W., Washington DC 20037 (USA)
  Posters against animal research available.

  FARM (Farm Animal Reform Movement)
  Box 30654
  Bethesda MD 20824
  Phone:  800-MEATOUT
  publishes quarterly newsletter and informational handouts. 

  PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals)
  P.O. Box 42516, Washington, DC 20015 (USA)
  publishes "Cruelty-free Shopping Guide" and informational

  National Anti-Vivisection Society
  53 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 1550, Chicago, IL 60604 (USA)
  Free Cruelty-free products listing.

  Also check the animal rights FAQ available from:
      or from Donald Graft on


7 Issues

  7.1 Rainforest beef -- Two different looks at the situation.

    Hamburger chains frequently get blamed for deforestation in Latin
    America. This isn't really true, and saying it over and over just
    makes us look bad, since knowledgable carnivores can just refute
    it.  The situation is this: in Brazil in particular, but
    throughout the region, governments, attempting to repay 
    crippling foreign loans, sell/give away land to 'developers' at
    fire sale prices as long as they do something to 'develop' the
    land.  The cheapest way to do this is to clear cut and use the
    land for cattle pasture.  Thus cattle grazing is a main cause of
    deforestation.  The problems w/going from this to blaming the
    Whopper are: as the knowledgable meat-eater will tell you, most
    Latin American cattle have hoof and mouth disease and just waste
    land for the sake of wasting land because they can't be sold for
    beef.  As a result, the Amazon is a net beef importer, and second,
    rainforest land is so poor that it's only suitable for grazing for
    a few years.  An excellent book on this and other rainforest
    issues is _The_Fate_of_the_Forest_ by Susana Hecht and Alexander

    Other sources indicate that, while South America IS a net importer
    of cattle (ignoring the huge quantities of processed meat product
    exported from Argentina and Brazil to the U.S.), central america
    does export live cattle to the U.S. These cows are labeled as U.S.
    when they cross the country line.  Another important aspect to
    this is that soya cattle feed, grown on rain forest plots, is
    exported in huge quantities to feed the cattle in other countries.
    It is not possible to say that the beef burgers in the U.S. are
    not directly or indirectly responsible for the destruction of the
    rain forest. It is not possible to say that the U.S. imports NO
    beef from the rain forest. Even if the cow herself has not been on
    rain forest land, the food that she has eaten most likely has.

  7.2 Hidden Animal Products

    See the separate posting in, for a much larger list of
    substances derived from animals. The subject is "LIST OF

    It is very difficult to avoid animals products in this 'modern day
    and age'. Here is a list of some common things that surprisingly
    contain animal derivatives and others that are safe.

      CASEIN: This is a product made when milk is heated with an acid,
              like lactic acid. This stuff mostly occurs in
              "no-lactose" soy cheeses like Soyco, Soy Kaas, AlmondRella,
	      Zero-FatRella, HempRella, and TofuRella Slices. The
              labels say "lactose-free" (lactose is another milk
              derivative), but that doesn't mean they are therefore
              vegan, as we used to incorrectly assume.  Soymage soy
              cheese is 100% vegan, but it's kind of gross. Vegan-Rella
              is also totally vegan. Casein is also used in plastics,
              adhesives, and paint manufacturing.

      CASEINATE: Casein mixed with a metal, like calcium caseinate or
                 sodium caseinate.

      CHEWING GUM: Some chewing gums contain glycerine.  Wrigleys gum
                   contains a vegetarian source of glycerine.

      ENVELOPES: Apparently most envelopes have a synthetic glue on
                 them, not an animal or fish based glue.

      MARGARINES: Can contain fish and other marine oils.  Many
                  margarines contain whey.

      MOHAIR: From goats. They can be sheared or skinned.

      NOUGAT: Usually contains gelatine.

      ORGANIC: Dried blood, bone/hoof meal and fish meal can all be
               used a fertilizers etc.  Try finding out about Veganic
               Gardening as an alternative, by using seaweed
               fertilizers which are widely available.

      PASTA: May contain egg, especially if fresh. Some pasta in
             Italy contains squids's ink; this can easily be
             recognized because the pasta is black.

      PASTES: Glues. May be animal or fish derived.

      PASTRY: Animal fats used in most shop-baked pies etc.  Check

      PHOSTATES: Derived from glycerol and fatty acids.  May be from
                 animal bones too.

      PHOTOS: Developing paper contains gelatine.

      POSTAGE STAMPS: These do not contain an animal or fish glue.

      PROGESTERONE: A hormone.  May have been taken from the urine of a
                    pregnant mare, and could be used in hormone
                    creams, etc.

      RENNET: An enzyme taken from the stomach of a newly killed calf.
              Used in the cheese making process.  Look for rennin or
              the words "made  without animal rennet".

      RUBBER: Processed with animal products. 

      SHORTENING: Can be made from animal fats.  Used in the food
                  industry especially pastries and biscuits.

      SOAP: Most soaps are not vegetarian because of the tallow
            (animal fats) used in their production.

      STEARATE: This usually comes in the form of _calcium stearate_,
                and it is found in hard candies like Gobstoppers and
                Sweetarts as well as other places.  It comes from
                stearic acid, which usually is derived from tallow, or
                animal fat.  Stearate is also used in vinyls (like car
                seats) and plastics.

      SUEDE: Leather.

      SWEETS: Watch out for gelatine, eg.: wine gums.  Nearly all
              mints eg.: Polo, Trebor, Extra Strong etc contain
              gelatine. See also Nougat.

      VIOLINS: Traditionally violins are stuck together with an animal
               based glue.  The bows are usually made from horse hair.

      WHEY: Liquid part of Milk

  7.3   Names of animals versus names of animal based foods

      It is a common misconception, and often argued wrongly by
      vegetarians,that the use, in the English language, of pig/pork,
      calf/veal, cow/beef, sheep/mutton etc. has something to do with
      meat-eaters pretending they're not eating animals. This is not the

      In mediaeval England the peasants were Anglo-Saxon but the
      aristocracy was Norman-French, this followed the conquest of
      England by William of Normandy (France) in 1066. The aristocracy
      compelled the peasants to looks after the animals but rarely
      allowed them eat any meat (see the Food in England thread for more

      The peasants called the animals by the Anglo-Saxon names - pig,
      calf, sheep etc. but the aristocracy, who ate the meat, called it
      by the French names for the same animals - porc (pig), veau (calf),
      boeuf (ox or bullock), mouton (sheep). This got Anglicised slightly
      over the centuries but this distinction between these animals and
      the meat has remained in every English speaking country around the
      world. Animals which were not commonly eaten by the Norman-French
      aristocracy, eg chicken, turkey, rabbit etc, have the same name for
      the animal and the meat.


Michael Traub,  FAQ keeper & VEGAN-L
To err is human, to moo bovine.

Michael Traub                       
 "I have no doubt that it is a part of the destiny of the human race,
 in its gradual improvement, to leave off eating animals" - Thoreau

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